Env History Resources

This is a general survey of resources on agrarian and environmental history. You may click on any of the links below to be taken directly to that section. Please let me know if you have any suggestions or recommendations for additional resources. **I have slowly added to this page, but have not had time to organize the updates. I plan to reorganize the resource list soon.

Environmental Histories
Foundations in Political Ecology
The Agrarian Question
Global Capitalist Transformations
Colonialism and Land
The State and Environmental Epistemologies
Neoliberalism and the Environment
Degradation and Environmental Change
Environmental Politics and Conservation
Social Movements and Resistance


Global Environmental Histories
The Beginnings:

Carson, Rachel, Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962.

Cleary, David. “Towards an Environmental History of the Amazon: From Prehistory to the Nineteenth Century.” Latin American Research Review 36 (2001): pp. 65-96.

Cronon, William. “The Trouble with Wilderness, or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature,” Environmental History, 1:1 (January 1996).

Cronon, William, ed., Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996.

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

McNeill, John, Something New Under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World. New York: W. W. Norton, 2001.

McNeill, John. “Observations on the Nature and Culture of Environmental History.” History and Theory. 42.4 (2003): 5-43.

McNeill, John. “The State of the Field of Environmental History.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 35 (November 2010): 345-74.

Sutter, Paul. “Reflections: What Can U.S. Environmental Historians Learn  from Non-U.S. Environmental Historiography?,” Environmental History, 18, 1 (January 2003): 109-130.


Colonialism, Empire, and the Environment

Anderson, Virginia DeJohn. Creatures of Empire: How Domestic Animals Transformed Early America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Cronon, William. “A Place for Stories: Nature, History, and Narrative.”  Journal of American History 78:4 (March 1992): 1347-76.

Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill and Wang, 1983.

Crosby, Alfred W. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1972.

Cushman, Gregory T., Guano and the Opening of the Pacific World: A Global Ecological History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Davis, Diana K. Resurrecting the Granary of Rome: Environmental History and French Colonial Expansion In North Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.

Grandin, Greg The Empire of Necessity: Slavery, Freedom, and Deception In the New World. New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt and Company, 2014.

Jacobs, Nancy. Environment, Power, and Injustice: A South African History. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

McNeill, John. Mosquito Empires: Ecology and War In the Greater Caribbean, 1620-1914. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Melville, Elinor G.K. A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Mitchell, Timothy, Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Sluyter, Andrew Black Ranching Frontiers: African Cattle Herders of the Atlantic World, 1500-1900. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 2012.

Tilley, Helen Africa As a Living Laboratory: Empire, Development, and the Problem of Scientific Knowledge, 1870-1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.


Global Conservation

Barton, Greg. Empire Forestry and the Origins of Environmentalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Beinart, William and Peter A Coates. Environment and History: The Taming of Nature In the USA and South Africa. Taylor & Francis e-Library ed. London: Routledge, 2002.

Dowie, Mark. Conservation Refugees: The Hundred-Year Conflict Between Global Conservation and Native Peoples. 1st MIT Press pbk. ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2011.

Neumann, Roderick P. Imposing Wilderness: Struggles Over Livelihood and Nature Preservation In Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Sheail, John. Nature’s Spectacle: The World’s First National Parks and Protected Places.London: Earthscan, 2010.



Biggs, David A. Quagmire: Nation-Building and Nature In the Mekong Delta. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2010.

Peluso, Nancy Lee, and Michael Watts. Violent Environments. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Tucker, Richard P. and Edmund Russell. Natural Enemy, Natural Ally: Toward an Environmental History of Warfare. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2004.



Dening, Greg. Islands and Beaches: Discourse on a Silent Land: Marquesas, 1774-1880 (Hawai’i: University of Hawai’i Press, 1980).

Carter, Paul. The Road to Botany Bay: An Exploration of Landscape and History, Reprint (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010).

Basso, Keith H. Wisdom Sits In Places: Landscape and Language Among the Western Apache. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.

Belyea, Barbara. “Inland Journeys, Native Maps” (Cartographica 33, 2, pp. 1-16, 1996).

Cosgrove, Denis. “Prospect, Perspective and the Evolution of the Landscape Idea” (Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers Vol. 10, No. 1 (1985), pp. 45-62).

Campbell, Robert. In Darkest Alaska: Travel and Empire along the Inside Passage (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007).

Friel, Brian. Translations (London: Faber & Faber , 1981).

Pratt, Mary Louise. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation, 2nd edn (New York: Routledge, 2008).

Sachs, Aaron. “The Ultimate ‘Other’”: Post-Colonialism and Alexander von Humboldt’s Ecological Relationship with Nature” (History and Theory 42, pp. 111-135, 2003).


Cartographic Histories

Akerman, James R. The Imperial Map: Cartography and the Mastery of Empire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Black, Jeremy. Maps and History: Constructing Images of the Past (New Haven: New Haven : Yale University Press, 1997).

Burnett, D. Graham. Masters of All They Surveyed: Exploration, Geography, and a British El Dorado. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Brody, Hugh. Maps and Dreams: Indians and the British Columbia Frontier (New York: Pantheon Books, 1982).

Craib, Raymond B. Cartographic Mexico: A History of State Fixations and Fugitive Landscapes. Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press, 2004.

Edney, Matthew H. Mapping an Empire: The Geographical Construction of British India, 1765-1843. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Harley, J.B. “Deconstructing the Map” (Cartographica, v. 26, n. 2 (Spring 1989), 1-20).

Hostetler, Laura. “Contending Cartographic Claims? The Qing Empire in Manchu, Chinese and European Maps.” In James R. Akerman, eds., The Imperial Map: Cartography and the Mastery of Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009), pp. 93-132.

Mundy, Barbara E. The Mapping of New Spain: Indigenous Cartography and the Maps of the Relaciones Geográficas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).

Padrón, Ricardo. The Spacious Word: Cartography, Literature, and Empire In Early Modern Spain. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Peluso, Nancy Lee. “Whose woods are these? Counter-mapping Forest Territories in Kalimantan, Indonesia” (Antipode 27, 4, pp. 383–406, October 1995).

Ramaswamy, Sumathi. “Maps and Mother Goddesses in Modern India” (Imago Mundi 53 (2001), 97-114).

Safier, Neil, “The Confines of the Colony: Boundaries, Ethnographic Landscapes, and Imperial Cartography in Iberoamerica” In James R. Akerman, eds., The Imperial Map: Cartography and the Mastery of Empire (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009), pp. 133-184.

Sahlins, Peter. Boundaries: The Making of France and Spain In the Pyrenees. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.

Schama, Simon. Landscape and Memory (New York: Random House, 1995).

Thongchai Winichakul. Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation. Paperback ed. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

Wainwright, Joel and Joe Bryan. “Cartography, territory, property: postcolonial reflections on indigenous counter-mapping in Nicaragua and Belize” (Cultural Geographies 16: 2, April 2009).

Wood, Denis. The Power of Maps (New York: Guilford Press, 1992).


Science, Technology, and Nature in History

Anderson, Warwick. Colonial Pathologies: American Tropical Medicine, Race, and Hygiene In the Philippines. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.

Barrow, Mark V. Nature’s Ghosts: Confronting Extinction From the Age of Jefferson to the Age of Ecology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Bont, Raf de. Stations In the Field: A History of Place-Based Animal Research, 1870-1930. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2015.

Boomgaard, P. Empire and Science In the Making: Dutch Colonial Scholarship In Comparative Global Perspective, 1760-1830. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Burnett, D. Graham. The Sounding of the Whale: Science & Cetaceans In the Twentieth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Daston, Lorraine and Elizabeth Lunbeck. Histories of Scientific Observation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

Fan, Fa-ti. British Naturalists In Qing China: Science, Empire, and Cultural Encounter. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Goldman, Mara, Paul Nadasdy, and Matt Turner. Knowing Nature: Conversations At the Intersection of Political Ecology and Science Studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011.

Haraway, Donna Jeanne. Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature In the World of Modern Science. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Jørgensen, Dolly, Finn Arne Jørgensen, and Sara B Pritchard. New Natures: Joining Environmental History with Science and Technology Studies. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2013.

Kohler, Robert E. All Creatures: Naturalists, Collectors, and Biodiversity, 1850-1950.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Kohler, Robert E. Landscapes & Labscapes: Exploring the Lab-Field Border In Biology.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Köhler, Robert E. Lords of the Fly: Drosophila Genetics and the Experimental Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Köhler, Robert E. Partners In Science: Foundations Managers and Natural Scientists, 1900-1945. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Latour, Bruno. Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences Into Democracy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Margócsy, Dániel. Commercial Visions: Science, Trade, and Visual Culture In the Dutch Golden Age.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Pritchard, Sara B. Confluence: The Nature of Technology and the Remaking of the Rhône.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2011.

Schiebinger, Londa L. and Claudia Swan. Colonial Botany: Science, Commerce, and Politics In the Early Modern World. Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

Schiebinger, Londa L. Plants and Empire: Colonial Bioprospecting In the Atlantic World. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Sörlin, Sverker and Dolly Jørgensen. Northscapes: History, Technology, and the Making of Northern Environments. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2013.

Terrall, Mary. Catching Nature In the Act: Réaumur and the Practice of Natural History In the Eighteenth Century. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Vetter, Jeremy. Knowing Global Environments: New Historical Perspectives On the Field Sciences. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2011.


Animal Histories

For a comprehensive list, see:  http://www.animalstudies.msu.edu/ASBibliography/bibliography.htm

These are a few of my favorites:

Boomgaard, P. Frontiers of Fear: Tigers and People In the Malay World, 1600-1950. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

Hurn, Samantha Humans and Other Animals: Cross-Cultural Perspectives On Human-Animal Interactions. London: Pluto Press, 2012.

Kirksey, Eben. The Multispecies Salon. Durham: Duke University Press, 2014.

Miller, Ian Jared. The Nature of the Beasts: Empire and Exhibition At the Tokyo Imperial Zoo.Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.

Nance, Susan. Entertaining Elephants: Animal Agency and the Business of the American Circus. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013.

Ritvo, Harriet. The Platypus and the Mermaid, and Other Figments of the Classifying Imagination. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Ritvo, Harriet. The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures In the Victorian Age.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Robbins, Louise E. Elephant Slaves and Pampered Parrots: Exotic Animals In Eighteenth-Century Paris. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Rothfels, Nigel. Savages and Beasts: The Birth of the Modern Zoo. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

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Foundations in Political Ecology

Wolf, Eric. “Ownership and Political Ecology,” in Anthropological Quarterly 45: 201-05, 1972.

Durham, William. “The Adaptive Significance of Cultural Behavior,” in Human Ecology 4(2): 89-121, 1976.

Blaikie, Piers and Harold Brookfield. Land Degradation and Society. London: Methuen, 1985.

Watts, Michael and Richard Peet (2004). “Liberating Political Ecology,” in Liberation Ecologies, Chapter One. Routledge, pp. 3-47.

Watts, Michael. “On the poverty of theory: natural hazards research in context.” In Kenneth Hewitt (ed.), Interpretations of Calamity: from the Viewpoint of Human Ecology. Boston: Allen and Unwin, pp 231-262, 1983.

Zimmerer. Karl. “Human geography and the ‘new ecology’: the prospect and promise of integration,” in the Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 84(1): 108-125.

Robbins, Paul. Political Ecology: A Critical Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 2004.

Vayda, Andrew and Bradley B. Walters (1999). “Against Political Ecology,” in Human Ecology 27(1): 167-179, 1999.

Forsyth, Tim. Critical Political Ecology: The Politics of Environmental Science. London: Routledge, 2003.

Guha, Ramachandra & Joan Martinez-Alier. Varieties of Environmentalism: Essays North and South. London: Earthscan, 1997.

McCarthy, James. “First World political ecology: lessons from the Wise Use movement.” Environment and Planning A, 34: 1281-1302, 2002.

Paulson, S., L. Gezon, and M. Watts. “Locating the Political in Political Ecology: An Introduction,” in Human Organization 62(3): 205-217, 2003.

Zimmerer, Karl S. and Thomas J. Bassett. Political Ecology: An Integrative Approach to Geography and Environment-Development Studies. Guilford, 2003.

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The Agrarian Question

Kautsky, Karl, The Agrarian Question: In Two Volumes. London: Zwan Publications, 1988 [1899]. http://www.uky.edu/~tmute2/geography_methods/readingPDFs/Kautsky-AgrarianQuestion.pdf

Chayanov, A. V., The Theory of Peasant Economy. Madison, Wis.: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1986 [1924].  http://www.uky.edu/~tmute2/geography_methods/readingPDFs/chayanov-intro

Lenin, V.I. “Preliminary draft theses on the agrarian question for the Second Congress of the Communist International.” 1920.  http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1920/jun/x01.htm

Shanin, Teodor. The Awkward Class; Political Sociology of The Peasantry in a Developing Society: Russia 1910-1925. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1977.

Gramsci, Antonio. 1926. Some Aspects of the Southern Question, from Selections from political writings (1921-1926), translated and edited by Quintin Hoare (Lawrence and Wishart, London 1978). https://www.marxists.org/archive/gramsci/spw2-contents.htm

Engels, Fredrich. The Peasant Question in France and Germany, 1970.  http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1894/peasant-question/

Bernstein, Henry 1982. “Notes on capital and peasantry.” In Rural Development: Theories of Peasant Economy and Agrarian Change, pp. 160-177. London: Hutchinson University Library.

Djurfeldt, Goran. “Classical discussions of capital and peasantry: a critique.” In John Harriss (ed.), Rural Development: Theories of Peasant Economy and Agrarian Change, London: Hutchinson University Library. pp. 139-159, 1982.

Watts, Michael. “The agrarian question in Africa: interpreting the crisis.” Progress in Human Geography, 13: 1-41, 1989.

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Global Capitalist Transformations of Land/Environment

The “Great Transformation”

Polanyi, Karl. The Great Transformation. Boston: Beacon Press, 1944 [1957].

Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Revised ed. with New Prologue. San Francisco: Univ. of California Press, 2011[1980].

Wolf, Eric R., Europe and the People without History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

Marx, Karl. Capital, Volume 1. New York: International Publishers, 1967 [1867].  https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/

Marx, Karl, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. New York: Mondial, 2005 [1851-2).  https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1852/18th-brumaire/

Foster, J. B. Marx’s Ecology: Materialism and Nature. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000.

Lefebvre, Henri, The Production of Space. Oxford, OX, UK: Blackwell, 1991.

Moore, Barrington. The Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Beacon Press, 1966.

Smith Adam. The Wealth of Nations. New York: Modern Library [1776].  http://www.econlib.org/library/Smith/smWNCover.html

Ricardo, David, and E. C. K Gonner. Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. London: G. Bell and sons, 1891.

Malthus, Thomas. An Essay on the Principle of Population. London: T. Bensley, 1802.

Brenner, Robert. “Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe” Past and Present 70: 30-75, 1976.

Ashton, T.H. and Philpin, C.H.E. 1993. The Brenner Debate: Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Global Imperialisms:

Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Harvey, David. The New Imperialism Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Friedmann, H. and P. McMichael. “Agriculture and the State System: the Rise and Decline of National Agricultures, 1870 to the present.” Sociologia Ruralis, 29/2: 93-117, 1989.

Federici, Silvia. Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body and Primitive Accumulation. Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia, 2004.

Hughes, J. Donald An Environmental History of the World: Humankind’s Changing Role In the Community of Life. London: Routledge, 2001.

Thompson, E. P. “Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism,” Past and Present 38(1): 56-97, 1967.

Anderson, Leslie. The Political Ecology of the Modern Peasant: Calculation and Commodity. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Benton, Ted. “Marxism and natural limits: an ecological critique and reconstruction.” In The Greening of Marxism, ed. Ted Benton. (New York: Guilford) pp. 157-183, 1996.

O’Connor, James. “The second contradiction of capital.” In The Greening of Marxism, ed. Ted Benton. New York: Guilford, pp. 197 – 221, 1996.

Altvater, Elmar. “The foundations of life (nature) and the maintenance of life (work): the relations between ecology and economics in the crisis.” International Journal of Political Economy 20: 10-34, 1990.

Prudham, Scott. Knock on Wood: Nature as Commodity in Douglas-Fir Country. New York: Routledge, 2005.

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Colonialism and Land

Agrawal, Arun, and K Sivaramakrishnan. Agrarian Environments: Resources, Representations, and Rule In India. Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press, 2000.

Bourdieu, P. and A. Sayad, (2004) “Colonial Rule and Cultural Sabir,” in Ethnography, 5(4): 445-486.

Breman, Jan. Taming the Coolie Beast: Plantation Society and the Colonial Order In Southeast Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Dove, Michael, The Banana Tree At the Gate: A History of Marginal Peoples and Global Markets In Borneo. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 2011.

Freidburg, Susanne. “Zambia: Settler Colonialism and Corporate Paternalism,” Chapter 4 in French Beans and Food Scares, pp. 93 – 127. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Mintz, Sidney Wilfred, Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar In Modern History. New York, N.Y.: Viking, 1985.

Mitchell, Timothy, Colonising Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Soluri, John. Banana Cultures: Agriculture, Consumption, and Environmental Change In Honduras and the United States. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005.

Warman, Arturo. Corn & Capitalism: How a Botanical Bastard Grew to Global Dominance. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

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The State and Environmental Epistemologies

State Authority

Foucault, Michel. “Governmentality” from Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller (eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Gramsci, Antonio, and David Forgacs. An Antonio Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings, 1916-1935. New York: Schocken Books, 1988. (Chapters VI and VII).

Scott, James C. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Agrawal, Arun, Environmentality: Technologies of Government and the Making of Subjects. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005.

Steinberg, Theodore. “Down to Earth: Nature, Agency, and Power in History.” American Historical Review. 107. (2002): 798-820.

Li, Tania, The Will to Improve: Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007.

Friedburg, Susanne, 2007. “Supermarkets and Imperial Knowledge,” Cultural Geographies 14(3)

Mitchell, Timothy. Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Knowing Nature and Environmental Epistemologies

Denevan, William M. “Adaptation, variation, and cultural geography,” in the Professional Geographer, 35:399-407, 1983.

Cronon, William, ed. Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. New York: Norton, 1996.

Castree, Noel and Bruce Braun. “The construction of nature and the nature of construction: analytical and political tools for building survivable futures.” In Noel Castree and Bruce Braun (eds) Remaking Reality: Nature at the Millenium (London: Routledge) pp. 3-42, 1998.

Escobar, Arturo, Territories of Difference: Place, Movements, Life, Redes (Durham: Duke University Press, 2008).

Li, Tania, Transforming the Indonesian Uplands: Marginality, Power and Production. London: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2004.

Raj, Kapil. Relocating Modern Science: Circulation and the Construction of Knowledge In South Asia and Europe, 1650-1900. Basingstoke [England]: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Agrawal, Arun. “Indigenous knowledge and the politics of classification. International Social Science Journal, 54: 287–297, 2002.

Robbins, Paul. “The practical politics of knowledge: state environmental knowledge and local political economy.” Economic Geography 76(2): 126-144, 2000.

Williams, Raymond. The Country and the City. New York: Oxford, 1973.

Williams, Raymond. Problems in Materialism and Culture. London: Verso, 1980.

Social Nature

Castree, Noel, and Bruce Braun, eds., Social Nature: Theory, Practice and Politics (Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishers, 2001).

Whatmore, Sarah, Hybrid Geographies: Natures, Cultures, Spaces (London; Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications, 2002).

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Neoliberalism and the Environment

Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Castree, Noel. “Commentary: From neoliberalism to neoliberalisation: Consolations, confusions, and necessary illusions.” Environment and Planning A, 38: 1-6, 2006.

Sonnenfeld, David A. and Arthur P.J. Mol. 2002. “Globalization and the transformation of environmental governance,” American Behavioral Scientist, 45(9): 1318-1339.

Bakker, Karen. 2002. “From state to market? Water mercantilización in Spain,” Environment and Planning A, 34: 767-790.

McCarthy, James and Scott Prudham. “Neoliberal nature and the nature of neoliberalism.” Geoforum, 35: 275-283, 2004.

McCarthy, James. “Privatizing conditions of production: Trade agreements as neoliberal environmental governance.” Geoforum, 35: 327-341, 2004.

Prudham, Scott. Poisoning the well: Neoliberalism and the contamination of municipal water in Walkerton, Ontario. Geoforum, 35: 343-359, 2004.

Robertson, Morgan M. “The neoliberalization of ecosystem services: Wetland mitigation banking and problems in environmental governance.” Geoforum, 35: 361-373, 2004.

Mansfield, Becky. “Neoliberalism in the oceans: “Rationalization,” property rights, and the commons question.” Geoforum, 35: 313-326, 2004.

Sawyer, Suzana, Crude Chronicles: Indigenous Politics, Multinational Oil, and Neoliberalism In Ecuador. Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press, 2004.

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Degradation, Disaster, and Environmental Change

Davis, Mike Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1998.

Hecht, Susanna. “Invisible Forests: The Political Ecology of Forest Resurgence in El Salvador,” in Liberation Ecologies, 2004.

Durham, William. “Political Ecology and Environmental Destruction in Latin America,” in The Social Causes of Tropical Deforestation in Latin America. Ann Arbor. University of Michigan Press: pp. 249-264, 1995.

Fairhead, J. and M. Leach. Reframing Deforestation: global analyses and local realities – studies in West Africa. London: Routledge, 1998.

Peluso, Nancy. Rich Forests, Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Sivaramakrishnan, K., Modern Forests: Statemaking and Environmental Change In Colonial Eastern India. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1999.

Walker, Brett L. Toxic Archipelago: A History of Industrial Disease In Japan. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2010.

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Environmental Politics and Conservation

Brosius, J. P. Green dots, pink hearts: Displacing politics from the Malaysian rain forest. American Anthropologist, 101(1), 36-57, 1999.

Neumann, Roderick. Imposing Wilderness: Struggles over Livelihood and Nature Preservation in Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Neumann, Roderick. “Nature-State-Territory: Toward a Critical Theorization of Conservation Enclosures,” in Liberation Ecologies, 2004.

Sundberg, Juanita. “Conservation and Democratization: Constituting Citizenship in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala.” Political Geography 22 (2003): pp. 715–740.

Guha, Ramachandra. “Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third-World Critique,” Environmental Ethics 11 (Spring 1989): 71–83.

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Social Movements and Resistance

Escobar, Arturo. Territories of Difference Place, Movements, Life, Redes. Durham: Duke University Press, 2008.

Fisher, William H. “Megadevelopment, Environmentalism, and Resistance: The Institutional Context of Kayapo Indigenous Politics in Central Brazil,” in Human Organization 53(3): 220-232, 1994.

Guha, Ranajit. Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India. Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1983

Miller, Byron A. Geography and social movements: comparing antinuclear activism in the Boston area. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000

Moore, Donald. “Subaltern struggles and the politics of place: Remapping resistance in Zimbabwe’s eastern highlands.” Cultural Anthropology, 13(3): 344-381, 1998.

Moore, Donald. “Remapping Resistance: ground for struggle and the politics of place.” In Geographies of Resistance, edited by S. Pile and M. Keith, Routledge, London, 1997.

Moore, D. Suffering for Territory: Race, Place, and Power in Zimbabwe. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.

Nonini, Donald Macon. British Colonial Rule and the Resistance of the Malay Peasantry, 1900-1957. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1992.

Peet, Richard and Michael Watts, eds. Liberation Ecologies: Environment, Development and Social Movements. London: Routledge, 1996.

Peluso, Nancy. Rich Forests, Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. Berkeley: UC Press, 1994.

Perreault, T. “Custom and Contradiction: Rural Water Governance and the Politics of Usos y Costumbres in Bolivia’s Irrigators’ Movement,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 98(4): 834-854, 2008.

Routledge, P. “A spatiality of resistance: theory and practice in Nepal’s revolution in 1990.” In Geographies of Resistance, edited by S. Pile and M. Keith, Routledge, London, 1997.

Scott, James C. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Staeheli, Lynn A. “Empowering political struggle: spaces and scales of resistance”. Political Geography. 13 (5): 387-391, 1994.

Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005.

Turner, M. 2004. “Political ecology and the moral dimensions of ‘resource conflicts’: the case of farmer-herder conflicts in the Sahel,” Political Geography 23: 863–89.

Wolford, Wendy. This Land Is Ours Now: Social Mobilization and the Meanings of Land In Brazil. Durham [NC]: Duke University Press, 2010.

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